Computational fluid dynamic model for machining using minimum quantity coolant

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa L1H 7K4, Canada.

2 Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.



The cooling applications during machining has significant effects on the production costs, surface quality, and the mechanical properties of the final product. In conventional flood cooling, a large amount of continuous cooling fluid is usually used, and that increases the cost of the product as well as the harmful effects on the environment and the machining operator. This study focuses on simulating alternative cooling system, called minimum quantity coolant (MQC), which used an optimal flow rate compared to classical flood cooling. The cooling fluid is directly provided to the cutting edge through the insert holder. In the current work, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model has been developed to study the effects of the cooling fluid velocity on the accessibility of coolant to the chip-tool interface area under using various types of cooling fluids. Three types of coolant are used (i.e. water, mineral oil, and nano-fluid). The results of the proposed CFD model have been classified into two phases. The first phase obtains the coolant accessibility percentage into the chip-tool interface (MA%) with different coolant velocities (i.e., 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 m/s) for the three studied coolants. The second phase discusses the heat transfer effectiveness for the employed coolants with different inlet velocities since it is an important aspect, especially when machining hard-to-cut materials. It was found that increasing the coolant velocity would increase the coolant accessibility percentage into the chip-tool interface area. However, no significant effect has been found after 1.5 m/s for all employed coolants.